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[Grower Бот]

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  1. Везде, включая Россию и Украину (но у нас всё сложно) В последнее время каннабидиол (вещество, получаемое из конопли, КБД) — невероятно популярный ингредиент: его уже использует в своей косметике сеть Sephora, Coca-Cola собирается добавить его в напитки. Кондитеры, пивовары, мыловары и другие производители рисуют на упаковках соцветие конопли, чтобы обозначить: в их продукции есть модный каннабидиол. В 2017 году рынок КБД оценивали в $202 млн. По прогнозам, к 2020 году он достигнет $2,1 млрд. КБД не вызывает опьянения, в отличие от тетрагидроканнабинола (ТГК), другого химического соединения, которое тоже содержится в конопле. Именно ТГК придаёт марихуане психоактивные свойства. Зато КБД содержит аминокислоты, витамины, а также помогает при эпилепсии и других заболеваниях. «Секрет» рассказывает, почему все помешались на конопле и как вышло, что в России КБД в серой зоне, несмотря на вековые традиции выращивания конопли. Что такое КБД Каннабидиол (КБД) — ненаркотическое химическое соединение, содержание которого в каннабисе может достигать 40%. В Австралии, Канаде, Швейцарии, Великобритании и США каннабидиол относят к лекарственным средствам, потому что он помогает при эпилепсии, тревожных и посттравматических расстройствах, а также обладает противовоспалительным действием. Кстати, есть предположение, что КБД эффективен при лечении болезни Альцгеймера, рассеянного склероза, болезни Паркинсона и рака. Но до сих пор глубоких исследований лечебного действия каннабидиола на большом количестве людей никто не проводил. С чего всё началось В 1998 году британский учёный Джоффри Гай основал компанию GW Pharmaceuticals и разработал препарат Sativex для облегчения боли и спазмов при рассеянном склерозе с ТГК и КБД. Великобритания разрешила продажу препарата только в 2010 году, он стал первым лекарством, разрешённым в стране, с марихуаной в составе. В 2011-м его одобрили в Испании, Чехии, Германии, Дании, затем — в других европейских странах и Канаде. В США марихуановым первопроходцем стал препарат GW Pharmaceuticals «Эпидиолекc» для лечения эпилепсии у детей. В июне 2018 года его одобрило Управление по санитарному надзору за качеством пищевых продуктов и медикаментов США (FDA). Но до декабря 2018 года даже в США выращивать индустриальную коноплю (с минимальным содержанием ТГК и высоким КБД) было запрещено, приходилось закупать её у соседей. Как КБД полюбили бренды и миллениалы 14 декабря 2017 года Всемирная организация здравоохранения рекомендовала исключить КБД из международных перечней контролируемых веществ. С этого момента изображение листика марихуаны на упаковке перестало быть указанием на маргинальность и запретность товара. Теперь это признак актуальности. Наибольшую популярность КБД получил в США. «Сейчас КБД — как биткоин в 2016 году, только из области химии», — считает Джейсон Делэнд, член правления компании Dosist, которая производит электронные КБД-сигареты. А бывший директор Coca-Cola Крис Берггрэев называет каннабидиол «новым тостом с авокадо», намекая на неравнодушие к веществу миллениалов. Компания собирается начать производить КБД-газировку. «Рынок быстро развивается», — объясняет представитель Coca-Cola Кент Ландерс. Bloomberg пишет, что компания ведёт переговоры с канадским производителем марихуаны Aurora Cannabis Inc. Газировкой дело не ограничивается. КБД добавляют в кофе, вино и пиво. За $35 можно купить CBD-мармеладок мишек с приятным клссическим вкусом вкусом, а на бранч в нью-йоркском кафе Chillhouse заказать КБД-тост с рикоттой и мёдом. Если после этого остались деньги, их можно потратить на косметику с КБД. В Sephora его содержат кремы от прыщей и от морщин, маски для сна, шампуни, кремы для глаз, тушь, бомбочки для ванны. Для особых фанатов вещества продаются даже КБД-лубриканты. В декабре 2018 года крупнейшая в мире компания по производству пива Anheuser-Busch InBev (ей принадлежит около 500 брендов, в том числе Budweiser) заключила сделку на $100 млн с канадской фармацевтической компанией Tilray, одним из крупнейших производителей медицинской марихуаны. Компании договорились вместе разрабатывать безалкогольные напитки на основе ТГК и КБД для канадского рынка. Они уверены, что рынок легальных напитков на основе марихуаны будет процветать. Такая одержимость компаний каннабидиолом объясняется просто. Во-первых, всё больше стран легализуют марихуану как в медицинских, так и рекреационных целях, рынок её производства растёт и тянет за собой сопутствующие. Во-вторых, с каждым годом увеличивается число исследований о пользе КБД. На Reddit в треде про КБД больше 54 000 комментариев от тех, кому помогает это вещество. Поколение миллениалов с повышенной тревожностью устало сидеть на антидепрессантах и ищет спасения в альтернативной медицине и натуральных препаратах. Как обстоят дела с КБД в России По российским законам КБД не считается наркотиком, оно не включено в перечень наркотических и психотропных веществ. Коноплеводство было одной из главных отраслей сельского хозяйства страны ещё со времён Ивана Грозного. Из конопли делали пеньковую бумагу, ткани, верёвки и паклю для строительства домов. А в XVIII веке при Петре I Россия стала мировым лидером по коноплеводству. СССР выращивал больше всех конопли в мире — 620 000 га. Растение было персонажем детских стихов, а в композиции фонтана «Дружба народов» на ВДНХ в Москве оно изображено вместе с пшеницей и подсолнечником. После подписания Всемирной единой конвенции о наркотических средствах в 1961 году объём посевов конопли в СССР сильно сократился. Перестройка, 1990-е и кризис в сельском хозяйстве добили отрасль — к 2016 году площади посева не превышали 3500 га. С 2007 года в России можно культивировать 27 не наркотических сортов конопли, которые есть в Государственном реестре селекционных достижений. Содержание ТГК в них составляет всего 0,03–0,07%, но и КБД не очень много — около 2%. Крупные игроки на рынке технической конопли («Коноплекс», «Мордовские пенькозаводы», «Нижегородские волокна конопли») производят в основном пеньковое волокно и масло, которое можно купить в любом супермаркете. Есть компании, которые делают из растения протеин, смузи, веганское молоко, энергетические батончики, шоколад, пасту (макаронные изделия), а также аксессуары. Например, на сайте нижегородской компании «Конопель» можно купить конопляные семечки, ядра, муку, масло, протеин, а также поясную сумку или постельное бельё из конопли. Выращивание конопли — прибыльное дело: по данным Краснодарского НИИСХа им. П. П. Лукьяненко, доходы с одного гектара конопли могут достигать 250 000–380 000 рублей (гектар пшеницы приносит 50 000–70 000 рублей). Несмотря на это, немногие рискуют засеять поле каннабисом. Уголовная ответственность по 228-й статье есть только за хранение ТГК и его изомеров с 0,05 г. Но есть нюанс — если хотя бы в одном растении содержание ТГК окажется выше, полиция имеет право уничтожить всю плантацию. А в российской технической конопле содержание ТГК может достигать 0,1% — слишком мало для опьянения, но достаточно, чтобы стать жертвой уголовного преследования. Валериан Серков из Пензенского НИИСХ советует предупреждать местные правоохранительные органы, предоставлять им копии документов на семена и другие бумаги, прежде чем начинать посев. Но и это может не спасти — полиция проверяет техническую коноплю чувствительными приборами и улавливает ТГК даже в стеблях и корнях конопли, которые никем и никогда не используются как сырьё для получения наркотика. С полицией вообще случаются всякие недоразумения. В 2018 году в Шереметьеве задержали двух туристов с КБД-маслом из Амстердама, их обвинили в контрабанде наркотиков. Также были единичные случаи, когда на людей заводили уголовные дела за заказ КБД по почте. Большинство российских производителей технической конопли спокойно используют в брендинге узнаваемое изображение соцветия. Но даже оно иногда становится поводом для преследования за пропаганду наркотиков. Так, в мае 2018 года московский ресторан «Гамбринус» оштрафовали на 840 000 рублей за изображение конопли в барной карте. Ресторан вполне легально продавал немецкое пиво с коноплёй Hanfblute, оно сертифицировано и разрешено к продаже в России, но суд это не учёл. Одним словом, в России культивирование конопли и производство товаров из неё — рулетка. Можно спокойно работать годами, а можно попасть в поле зрения силовиков и долго отбиваться от них, тратя силы, время и деньги.
  2. [Grower Бот]

    Cannado

    Cannado - интернет магазин семян конопли. Работает с 2010 года, есть оплата криптовалютой. Доставляет семена по всей России, в Казахстан, Белоруссию, на Украину и в Израиль. Все без палева!
  3. When it comes to cannabis, variety really is the spice of life. From Fruity Pebbles to Thin Mint Girl Scout Cookies, there always seems to be a strain for every occasion. But did you know that all the strains we have today trace back to a handful of original cannabis plant types known as landrace strains? It’s true. In fact, botanists can trace the entire cannabis lineage back to an original landrace strain in the Hindu Kush region of Afghanistan and Pakistan. We know — mind blown, right? So what is a landrace strain, specifically? What makes them unique? And should you drop everything, sell your car, and trek to the back of beyond just to try one? An Extremely Brief History Of Cannabis Historical documents from as far back as 2900 B.C.E. (before common era) and archaeological evidence from various regions indicate that cannabis was already in use during the Neolithic period in China. That means humans could have been smoking weed as far back as 10,000 B.C.E.! Actually, that’s a bit of an exaggeration. Our ancient stoner ancestors probably consumed cannabis as an edible or as a weed tea. It probably wasn’t until later that some ganja genius got it in his or her head to inhale the smoke of a burning pot plant. We really don’t know for sure about cannabis use, though, because Wikipedia didn’t exist back then and no one wrote anything down (they probably forgot because they were stoned off their weed tea). Cannabis genetics are a different thing entirely. Botanists don’t need written records to do some pretty amazing things, like trace all the cannabis strains that we know about today back to single plant variety that first developed in the Hindu Kush region of what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan. Keep in mind that this area was a no-man’s land between Indian and Chinese civilizations way back then. But it’s not hard to imagine an intrepid Chinese explorer stumbling upon a crop of wild cannabis in this region, eating it, burning it, or just using the fibers for something, thereby kicking off our current marijuana revolution. From that earliest discovery, mankind took cannabis wherever they went and the plant spread outside the Kush and China to Russia, Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and even parts of North America. Through the intervening years, ganja growers have combined strain after strain of cannabis plants in order to produce different results. Some growers wanted the plant to grow in cooler climates. Some growers wanted the plant to grow in warmer climates. Some growers wanted to isolate a particular flavor. That led to the production of the myriad strains we have now. But everything can be traced back to that one original strain and the handful of landrace strains that followed. What Is A Landrace Strain? A landrace strain is a variety of cannabis plant that has less diluted DNA than other strains of cannabis. That means landrace strains have not been crossbred with another variety of cannabis. To take the distinction even further, landrace strains are usually indigenous to a certain part of the world (meaning they have adapted to the environment of a specific geographic location). And since these landrace strains are the original cannabis plant from that area, descendants from those strains often bear part of the region’s name (e.g., Kandy Kush, Durban Thai, Super Lemon Haze). Let’s think of it this way for clarification: The original strain that developed in the Hindu Kush so many thousands of years ago was a wild species. Caveman potheads took seeds from that wild species and planted them in various parts of the world in the thousands of years between then and now. Those plants that were directly descended from the original species are now known as landrace strains. From there (in, say, the past 100-200 years), mankind continued to practice selective breeding of the cannabis plant for genetic improvement. That produced the modern hybrid strains we enjoy today. 6 Landrace Strains From Around The World Here, for your pleasure, is a brief list of six landrace strains from around the world. This is by no means an exhaustive list. It’s just to give you an idea of where that Chem Dog you’re smoking came from: Hindu Kush, Pakistan Pure Afghan, Afghanistan Lamb’s Bread, Jamaica Acapulco Gold, Mexico Durban Poison, Africa Panama Red, Central America Are Landrace Strains Unique In Some Way? It’s important to understand that the landrace classification only describes the strain’s genetic purity and indigenous upbringing. It does not mean that landrace strains will get you higher than a good batch of Blue Dream or cut your anxiety quicker than a high-CBD strain. In fact, modern strains are much better than landrace strains at generating the effects we’re all looking for (be they recreational or medicinal). That’s because growers have bred the plants for those specific effects. Landrace strains are not “better” than modern strains, or even really unique in any way. They just have less diluted DNA. They’re closer to the original wild species than anything else we have available today. To put it in perspective, it’s like comparing the very first car (let’s say it was the Model T for simplicity’s sake) with the newest BMW. You’re going to enjoy cruising around in the BMW more than you would the Model T — the BMW is comfier, rides better, is easier to start, and goes faster (just to name a few) — but it’s still good to know where that BMW originally came from. That’s how you can look at landrace strains today. They’re really only useful to historians, scientists, and pot purists. The one benefit from trying a landrace strain would be experiencing more genuine effects that are closer to those produced by the original cannabis strain. Maybe the high or the medicinal effects were completely different. We just don’t know. Where Have All The Pure Landrace Strains Gone? You may be wondering why you haven’t heard about landrace strains before. Where have they all gone? To answer both questions at the same time: the original landrace strains have been taken out of their native environment and endlessly crossbred with other varieties to produce something new. When a landrace strain is removed from its indigenous environment (say, Pakistan) and forced to grow elsewhere (say, Mexico), it has to mature in different growing conditions. In response to those new growing conditions, the plant will exhibit new characteristics (e.g., smaller flowers, longer grow time, higher THC). During that transition from indigenous environment to new growing conditions, some of the characteristics of the original plant will be lost. To get those characteristics back, you’d have to return the plant to its native environment. Even then, the “purity” would be in question because you’ve grown a plant in a different location (Mexico) — producing slightly different characteristics — and then tried to return the seed to the place where its grandparent plant came from (Pakistan). See how quickly things can get murky and diluted? It’s enough to make your head swim and your eyes go googly (even without taking a toke). That’s why we recommend not thinking about it too deeply. It’s enough just to know that landrace strains exist. You don’t have to get intimate with the subject. Just give a polite ‘sup nod as you pass by on your way to the local dispensary for a dime bag of Yoda OG. Should You Try A Landrace Strain? Our answer to questions like these is usually a resounding, “Yes!” There are a few times when we have to say no — like, should you make your own THC-O-Acetate or CO2 cannabis oil — but, for the most part, it never hurts to try. That said, don’t cash in your life savings for the chance to puff a landrace strain. You’ll probably be disappointed. Modern strains are often better at producing the recreational or medicinal effects that you’re looking for. Remember, landrace strains aren’t stronger, more potent, or better in some way. They’re just less diluted (genetically speaking) than other strains. And, honestly, even that’s debatable given how much time has passed since the discovery of the original landrace strain and man’s tendency to crossbreed plants to make them grow “better.” It’s good to know about landrace strains, but we seriously doubt they’re going to be the next big thing in cannabis consumption unless scientists find something in their DNA that cures cancer better than Rick Simpson oil or completely cures anxiety and depression. You’re better off using organic, pesticide-free marijuana than spending your hard-earned money on something that claims to be a landrace strain.
  4. Есть много информации касательно того, как в домашних условиях вырастить сочный куст марихуаны. Все владельцы модных гроу-шопов первым делом берутся за то, что сравнивают один тент с другим, рассказывая о преимуществах удобрений на канале youtube. Это очень здорово, на мой взгляд, многие уже обладают навыками гровинга. Однако не все, кто умеет выращивать траву, знают, как её правильно хранить. Давайте перейдем к хранению готового продукта. Что это и зачем это нужно? Некорректное хранение травы может привести к тому, что стафф будет пересушен или наоборот — дойдет до состояния, когда может появиться плесень. Сухая трава теряет большую часть своих полезных свойств, а коноплю, которая почти заплесневела — лучше не курить вообще. Если у вас классная марихуана и вы хотите, чтобы она такой же и осталась, то лучше задуматься о правильном хранении. Морозильник, обычные или герметичные пакеты — не самое лучшее решение. Если хранить в пакете, то меньше, чем через неделю, ваши липкие шишки превратятся в сухарики. Вот несколько идей, которые помогут вам улучшить качество травы. Факторы, снижающие качество травы Температура, влажность, свет и воздух — все это может повлиять на качество марихуаны. Это все совершенно точно повлияет на конечный продукт, если положить траву в пакетик и спрятать на балконе. До того, как мы перейдем к тому, как хранить траву, давайте начнем с примеров того, как не нужно делать. Многие уверяют, что, положив марихуану в холодильник или морозильник, она там пролежит без потери свойств долгий период времени. Однако, в холодильнике возможны изменения температуры и влажности, что влияет на качество травы. Мы также не рекомендуем замораживать марихуану. К слову, заморозка — это один из способов изготовления гашиша как раз потому, что холодная температура разъединяет трихомы от шишек. Что такое трихомы и почем они супер важны, напишем в следующем выпуске. Но если вкратце, то трихомы содержат в себе все элементы, которые мы так любим в марихуане, такие как каннабиноиды и терпены. Таким образом, если вы не хотите иметь плесень или драгоценную трихому на дне вашей банки, держитесь подальше от холодильников и морозильников. Лучше всего спрятать баночку или пакетик там, где температура и влажность более стабильная. Низкая температура — это не единственное, о чем стоит беспокоиться. Хранить марихуану в теплом помещении также не рекомендуется, например, рядом с духовой плитой или радиатором. Она очень быстро высушится. Герметичные стеклянные банки Чтобы ваши шишки оставались сочными и крупными, их нужно защитить от различных негативных внешних влияний, для этого рекомендуется использовать герметичные контейнеры. Есть гроверы, которые используют пластиковые контейнеры, но хранение в пластике приведет к тому, что шишки «отдадут» влажность. Герметичные стеклянные банки — ваш идеальный выбор для хранения и сохранения огромных, сочных бошек. Любая герметичная банка подойдет. Верхняя часть банки должна иметь плотную крышку, чтобы шишки не имели доступа к воздуху. Как только вы положите траву в банку, ее просто нужно держать подальше от света и тепла. Пакетики Boveda для поддержания влажности Если вы используете свой запас травы в течение одной недели, тогда вариант с герметичным стеклянным контейнером подходит. Однако, чтобы гарантировать сочность, отличный вкус, богатый запах и вес на длительный срок, вам понадобятся пакетики Boveda. На тематических выставках уже давно демонстрируют пакетики Boveda. Эти пакетики контролируют уровень влажности марихуаны в герметичных контейнерах и доводят % влажности до идеальных 62%. Если нет желания курить траву с неприятный вкусом и слабую по эффекту (которая когда-то была огнем!) предпримите шаги, чтобы защитить ваши шишки на долго. Итак, давайте подведем итог, марихуану нужно хранить в герметичном стеклянном контейнере с пакетиком Boveda. Место хранения должно быть прохладное и темное, тогда трава останется свежей и в нужной кондиции в течение 4–5 месяцев. Других способов сделать это просто не существует.
  5. So, you’ve finally started growing. Congrats! But, things aren’t going very well because the leaves on your plants aren’t green. Thankfully, you’ve come to the right place: if your leaves aren’t a bright, healthy green it’s likely your crop has a nutrient deficiency. 95 percent of all nutrient deficiency symptoms show first on the leaves, which makes sense, considering the cannabis plant is mainly leaves. Root or stalk problems are rare, we’ve found. But before we get into specific nutrient deficiencies, we must first say a few words on pH levels and watering/feeding practices. Proper pH is Essential New growers: if you find yourself scratching your head and reaching for the pipe when asked about pH levels, don’t trip. You’re not alone, and we’ll get you up to speed. The pH of something (usually a liquid) refers to its acidity or alkalinity. The pH scale starts at 0 (very acidic) and goes to 14 (very alkaline). A value of seven is a neutral pH level. Cannabis likes a slightly acidic pH, so shoot for a pH of five or six in your nutrient solution. Marijuana plants cannot absorb nutrients properly if the pH at their roots is too high or too low. So even if the nutrients are present, you’ll still get what looks like nutrient deficient product if you don’t maintain the right pH. While a purely hydroponic system would be cool to have, most growers stick to peat and perlite to raise their crop. It’s a low-cost, low-tech system, but your plants will love it. It only takes a week or so to find the right feeding and watering amounts in order to get the best yield possible. Water and Food Make for a Healthy Life Most peat and perlite pots need to be fed and watered every two or three days. The general rule is to feed in the morning when the grow lamp turns on and water just before the grow lamp turns off. After a few days, if you notice the growing medium is wet an inch down you’ll have to cut back the amount of nutrient solution and water. Don’t confuse dead leaves and stunted growth with nitrogen deficiency– this can also be caused by being overwatered and overfed. On the other hand, if your growing medium dries out before a full day has passed you’ll have to feed and water more often–but not more all at once. You might also want to ponder using a humidifier in the growing area. Sometimes a dry environment can cause symptoms like nutrient deficiencies, too. Wilting is the first symptom of an underfed, underwatered plant. Consider the Nutrient Solution Once you’ve perfected your pH and developed a good feeding and watering plan, think about the nutrient solution you use. During the green leafy stage of life, you might not pick up on a nutrient deficiency since the plant has all of the trace elements–zinc, boron, iron, sulphur, phosphorous and potassium–to grow healthily in its infancy. These trace elements are present in the seed, which lasts for the first two or three weeks of growth. The concentration of the nutrient solution is as important as the pH of the nutrient solution. Nutrient burn is a reality most growers run into eventually. It is entirely possible to mix your nutrient solution at too high a concentration, referred to as parts per million (PPM), causing the tips of the lower leaves to brown and curl. Read the instructions on the container your nutrient comes in for the specific PPM the nutrient will deliver. Thrive in the Perfect Temperature Now let’s think about temperature and its effect on the nutrient solution, and thus, the plant as a whole. Cannabis likes a temperature of 22-24 degrees Celsius (or 68-75 degrees Fahrenheit). You can tell if a plant is heat-stressed if the leaves start folding upwards. The leaves will also have a sickly-looking dark green hue to them too. Just be sure not to confuse this symptom with nitrogen burn, which is an excess of nitrogen. It can look similar. High temperatures can trigger root rot, too– a serious problem that can kill your plants over time. The easiest way to lower the temperature of an indoor space is to simply turn on a fan to move the air. The air will be cooled in a process known as vaporative cooling. Trace Elements Observe the following table, which lists most nutrient deficiencies. Nutrient Symptom(s) ZincSulphur Potassium Phosphorous Manganese Molybdenum Magnesium Iron Copper Calcium Boron The topmost leaves turn yellow. Lower leaves turn yellow. Yellow starts at the base of the leaf and proceeds to the tip. Brown or yellow edges on all leaves regardless of age. Brown spots all over the leaves. Affected leaves will die and drop off. Yellow veins, with brown spots. Older leaves turn an odd pink or red color. Shows up on older plants. Also shows yellow between the veins of the leaf. The topmost inner leaves turn bright yellow or even white. Leaf tips appear yellow. The leaves are dark green. Brown spots that eat right through the leaf. Stems may be hollow and are brittle. New foliage growth is very thick. Brown spots on the underside of the leaf. Most nutrient deficiencies stem from a lack of trace elements. There are hundreds–perhaps thousands–of brands of trace elements, so you’ll have options (and some research to do). It should be noted that a good trace element bottle has a dark glass or plastic. The reason is because light bonds the chemicals in your trace elements. So, be sure to store the bottle in a dark place. Otherwise, the nutrients bond covalently and become unusable to the plant. As your crop matures you’ll find that a budding plant needs tons of nutrients. The first deficiency you’ll notice is the yellowing and dying off of the older, lower leaves– this is a nitrogen deficiency. This is the most common ailment marijuana throws at you during the budding stage. We usually double the PPM of the nutrient solution during the budding stage. But keep an eye out for nutrient toxins. With the right growing plan in place and handy articles (such as this one!), you’re sure to harvest a bumper crop of our favorite green growing thing: good ‘ol marijuana.
  6. Firmly established in the U.K and Dutch scenes as a purveyor of the finest cannabis genetics on the planet, НT sat down with OJ from Amsterdam-based Connoisseur Genetics. Producing close to one million feminized seeds per year, we talk to him about the breeding scene, his influences, genetics, how he crafts his seeds, and what his top tips are when it comes to making a consistent, reliable, and delicious end product. НT: How different is the U.K breeding scene compared to America’s? OJ: The American scene is very different to the UK scene as we are entirely illegal and still totally underground. We have no dispensaries so can’t trade or access clones as easily as the USA. It is tough to operate in the UK and stay under the radar. We do have one advantage, and that is cannabis seeds are legal, so we can trade in them but not produce them. This is the frustrating part of our challenging laws. When creating a new strain, what are the desired traits you look for as a breeder? When creating a new strain, I’m trying to merge some of the best qualities of each plant into each other and in my case, focusing on the aroma, taste, and effect as my priority. I also clone only plants that I’m just trying to produce the strain in feminized form. This is done by selfing the clone to create an S1, for people who don’t have access to these special clones, yet want the genetic in seed form now have an easy to work with feminized seed. For male plants I’m looking for the trait of the plant I plan to capture. I consider leaf shape to indicate pheno and structure of the plant. My number one goal for me is aroma, meaning I always select a stinky male that throws off that particular scent. Can you explain what S1 means when breeding and how female pollen is produced? An F1 or first generation is crossing two unrelated landraces together to create hybrid vigor. However, S1 is where you take a clone and reverse it using chemicals or Silver. The process is logistically much harder than regular male breeding, due to the female pollen producing a lot less viable pollen than a regular male plant. This can result in a much smaller percentage of final seeds meaning a much lower conversion rate to regular seeds. Courtesy of Connoisseur Genetics What are your breeding facilities like and how is everything quality controlled? I have multiple breeding spots that are used to produce my seeds. Each place does one unique reversal or male project at a time, to guarantee there is no cross-contamination of pollen. For smaller testing spaces, I use males or reverse female clones that I have not used before. Once the choice clones have been selected from the smaller rooms, they are then used in my main breeding room. This ensures only the best of the best stock is used. The way I store pollen is in an airtight container in the fridge, but I would advise to use fresh pollen and only stored pollen if no other options are available. The viability rate of the pollen dies over time, which can be a total waste of time as a breeder. What are your top tips for any up and coming breeders out there? My top tips are: breed for the people and not for your taste. Unless you are home breeding for fun, then this is different. Try and be unique not like every other company, come with some exclusive flavors and effect. This will allow you to stand out from the rest at a commercial level. Get out there and try what’s going in the top dispensary, coffee shop, social club and cup events. Then you can know if your stuff is the best of the best and not just the best in your circle Courtesy of Connoisseur Genetics How long have you been breeding for, and how would you best describe your work? I first started breeding just for fun around 2005, but began selling seeds around 2009 through ICMAG.com which I have a forum there. I best describe my work as made by a connoisseur for connoisseurs focusing on taste and effect. This means growing with the best organic mediums and zero chemicals. Who have been your biggest influences in breeding? My biggest influence was Nevil of the seed bank Sensi Seeds, Greenhouse Seeds and Mr. Nice, as well as Soma of Soma seeds. Neville is a genius and responsible for over 90% of any top end plants that floated around Europe between the 1980 – 2005. He is the real Haze king producing the best plants that I have ever seen or smoked. Soma used to have his buds for sale in Amsterdam coffeeshops years back, and they were another level, so tasty it was like you were eating fresh fruit. They were grown organic in a hydro filled city, and they stood above everything. Soma’s New York City Diesel (Old Red Grapefruit cut) is in my top 3 ever and fighting that 1st place as the most delicious organic cannabis around. Long live the red grapefruit cut and let it find its way to me one day! When did your pursuit for the original Hazes begin and can you tell us more about the origin of Haze in Amsterdam? My love for Haze started after smoking the Northern Lights # 5 Haze from seed, then traveling to Amsterdam and smoking and growing all the best Haze I came across there. The origins of Haze started when Sam the Skunkman came to Holland from the USA with seeds in the late 70’s or early 80’s and shared some seeds with Neville who went to went to work like a D.J cutting and mixing it up. Known for best creating the world famous NL #5 Haze cuts that are responsible for 90% of Haze today. Courtesy of Connoisseur Genetics What are your top five strains you’ve made? That is quite tricky, but I would say number one is Super Silver Sour Diesel Haze. An Original release of SSSDH that I got from Reservoir Seeds and have made F2 for Reservoir seeds. I created the feminized line of the original SSSDH, which is sold through my seedbank. The second is Strawberry Cookies, which is a cross of Strawberry Cough x Girl Scout Cookies reversed. Third would be Hey Dave, who is a cross of OG Affie x OG Kush by Raskal Seeds x Casey Jones reversed. My fourth strain is the Diesel Dipped Cookies, who is a cross of the original Diesel x Girl Scout Cookies reversed. Finally, I would say Nevil The G which is Nevil Mango by MR Nice seeds x G13 Haze male ( Soma’s cut ) Will Connoisseur Genetics be at any expos in 2019, and do you have any social media platforms our readers can follow you on? Yes, Connoisseur Genetics will be at Spannabis in Barcelona, НT cup in Amsterdam and any other big European Canna event. Please follow me on Instagram @connoisseurgenetics and Facebook. You can find a lot of my history and grow diaries, tester threads and much more info at ICMAG.com. Thank you for the opportunity Soft Secrets and keep up the great work!
  7. Back in the day, if you wanted a novel way to experience marijuana, you had to hunt down the mythical Thai stick or get really creative with your homemade bong. Now, novelty abounds in head shops from coast to coast. One of the newer approaches to dancing with Mary Jane is the THC cartridge. THC cartridges are so new you may not even know what they’re all about. And that’s a shame because THC cartridges really are one of the easiest ways to get your ganja on. What Are THC Cartridges? It all started when some canny cannabis consumer came up with the brilliant plan to modify an electronic cigarette to handle marijuana instead of tobacco. Those MacGyvered electronic cigarettes caught on quickly and are now known as vape pens. When they first came out, you purchased a small bottle of your favorite e-liquid (or in marijuana circles, “vape juice”), and filled the vape pen yourself. But progress is all about doing fewer things yourself. That’s where the THC cartridge came in. A THC cartridge is a pre-filled, disposable container filled with your favorite strain of THC oil. Once the oil in the THC cartridge reaches a certain temperature, it vaporizes. You can then inhale to your heart’s content without worrying about the adverse effects of smoke in your lungs. But you’re not going to throw your THC cartridge in the oven or boil it on the stove. There’s a very special method to this madness. How Does A THC Cartridge Work? All right, let’s walk through this using the above picture as a reference. See the small piece in the foreground with the left end that looks like the mouthpiece of a pipe? That’s a THC cartridge. Now see the longer piece above it? That’s the vape pen, e-cigarette, or just vaporizer (call it whatever you like, it’s all the same thing). Actually, the vaporizer is the black shaft from the silver tube on the left to the end on the right (this vaporizer has a THC cartridge attached). As you can probably surmise from the picture (unless you’re really stoned, in which case, right on!), you first attach the THC cartridge to the vaporizer (usually by screwing it on). When you’re ready to fly, you press a button on the vaporizer and a small battery heats a coil. The coil then vaporizes the oil in the THC cartridge and you’re off to the races. “That all sounds great,” you say, “but I’m good with joints, blunts, bongs, and edibles. Why would I want to switch to a THC cartridge?” Good question. What Are The Benefits Of THC Cartridges? 1) Higher Potency Vaping with a THC Cartridge is more potent than smoking because using a vaporizer reduces the temperature at which cannabinoids change from solid or liquid into gas. This temperature reduction preserves many of the active ingredients in marijuana — the stuff that gets you high and makes you feel good — that would otherwise be destroyed when you burn your cannabis. Think of it this way: a flame is pretty much only one temperature. It’s hot enough to burn your bud and turn it into smoke, which occurs at around 450℉. But — and here’s the kicker — cannabinoids can be changed into a gas at much lower temperatures (around 284℉). All that extra heat is just destroying a large portion of the cannabinoids and terpenes you’re trying to get into your system. That’s where the THC vape pens come in. They operate at much lower temperatures than your common, everyday flame. Rather than producing smoke (through burning), they produce vapor (through vaporization). As a result, you get more “bang for your buck” — or perhaps “cannabinoids for your cash” — because the THC, CBD, CBG, CBN, and others don’t get burned away. And this occurs in a sleek and indiscreet package that doesn’t require bulky bongs or a plethora of extra tools. All you need is a THC vape pen and your favorite THC cartridge. 2) Ease Of Use Sure, pills, dissolvable strips, tinctures, and creams are probably the easiest methods of getting marijuana into your system, but vaporizers and THC cartridges are, at the very least, close to the top of the list. Do you know how to screw two things together? Do you know how to push a button? Do you know how to inhale? If you answered yes to these three questions, using a THC cartridge will be a breeze. 3) Portability We love THC cartridges for their portability. Pop a THC cartridge and heating element in your shirt pocket or handbag and you’re good to go. No baggies that can break open and spill. No lids that can come off. No muss, no fuss. Just plenty of THC goodness in the palm of your hand. 4) Controlled Dosing Getting just the right dose (be it CBD or THC) is on everyone’s mind when they first use a new product. Nobody wants a bad trip. But with a THC cartridge, you get a controlled dose from each inhalation. Are colors starting to talk to you? Put the vape pen away for a while and come back when the edges get dull. The THC cartridge will be waiting for you to press that button and start inhaling again. You can’t do that with a joint or blunt. 5) Secrecy With joints and bongs (and other “burn” methods), you’re always concerned about the smoke and smell. You certainly can’t fire up a fatty in the office and not expect some repercussions. But with a vape pen and THC cartridge, you don’t have to worry about drawing the attention of those around you. Everything is self-contained and the vapor doesn’t really produce an odor. Plus, the whole thing looks just like an e-cigarette. So you can always tell your anti-ganja friends and neighbors that you’re just trying to quit smoking. There are more discreet methods of ingesting marijuana, but if you enjoy the act of inhaling your cannabinoids, THC cartridges are just what you’ve been looking for. What Are The Drawbacks Of THC Cartridges? 1) Undecided Science The jury’s still out as to the long-term effects of vaporizing with THC cartridges. But, hey, for the longest time, that same jury was convinced that cannabis was the devil’s weed. Now, look at all we’ve discovered about the medical benefits of marijuana. 2) Shorter-Lasting Effects Than Edibles Honestly, is this really a drawback? Few methods of consuming cannabis stack up to edibles when it comes to longevity. To us, this feels like saying, “My Mazda Miata won’t haul as much cargo as my ¾-ton GMC Sierra.” Well, yeah. Duh. If you want a fun, fast ride that will fit into tight spaces, go with the THC cartridge. If you’re looking for an all-day long haul, gnosh on a pot brownie. It’s all about choosing the right tool for the job, folks. 3) Fewer Terpenes Because of the way THC cartridges are made, they contain fewer terpenes than raw bud. And when it comes down to it, most concentrates fall into that same boat. Just like the second drawback above, there are trade-offs with each method of consumption. If you’re ultra-concerned about flavor, stay at home and smoke some fresh organic bud. 4) Expense When compared to other types of extracts, THC cartridges can be expensive. But you’re also paying for the convenience, portability, and discretion. That’s worth a few extra bucks, isn’t it? 5) Special Knowledge No, we’re not talking alchemy and Kabbalah. But do you know how to use a vaporizer? That’s the special knowledge you need to get the most from a THC cartridge. Really, though, it’s a lot less difficult than rolling a joint. Just read the instructions. Should You Try A THC Cartridge? Absolutely! Trying new things is the name of the game in the cannabis community. And honestly, what do you have to lose? If you don’t like it, that smoke sesh is less than stellar, but you can always go back to the old standby (whatever that is for you). But if you do like it, you may just find your new favorite way to get baked. Before you run out and drop bookoo bucks on a THC cartridge, bum a ride from (a.k.a. share a few tokes with) a friend who already owns a vaporizer. Or maybe she’ll be generous enough to lend it to you for a day so you can really get a feel for how a THC cartridge works. However you do it, trying before buying is the ideal way to test a THC cartridge and vaporizer for yourself. Just be sure you return the favor should someone ask you.
  8. В большинстве случаев садовод, даже самый неопытный, хоть чуть-чуть да меняет форму конопляного куста. Почему? — Причин может быть несколько: При выращивании в закрытом грунте (шкафу, боксе, палатке и т.д.) может быть недостаточно места как в высоту, так и в ширину. Свет лампы всегда фиксированный. Как правило, он располагается вверху. Для сравнения, в природе солнце за день обходит куст со всех сторон и освещает его с разной высоты, обеспечивая более равномерную освещенность всех частей растения. При фиксированном положении лампы какие-то части растения могут всегда оставаться в тени. Эффективность лампы зависит от расстояния до него, поэтому у высокого растения верхушки получают вдоволь света, а вот нижние ярусы — даже если свет к ним попадает напрямую и ничем не загораживается — уже недостаточно освещены. Здесь действует закон физики — сила света обратно пропорционально квадрату расстояния. В природе это не имеет значения, так как для солнечного света, который прошел до Земли 150 млн. километров, лишние метр-два — это пустяк. В открытом грунте иногда нужно сделать так, чтобы конопля не торчала поверх окружающих зарослей. В некоторых случаях вмешательство в природную форму кроны само по себе повышает урожайность. Например, некоторым сортам конопли пойдет на пользу, если одну главную колу разделить на две, четыре или даже больше. Нужно помнить, что формирование кроны несет определенный стресс, и не стоит напрягать растение, которое и так болеет или остановилось в росте. Тем более не нужно мучить неокрепший росток. Только здоровые, достаточно зрелые, активно растущие растения. Также нужно помнить, что понадобится время, чтобы растение преодолело стресс и восстановило силы. А теперь рассмотрим вкратце основные методы формирования кроны и контроля высоты. Они имеют, как правило, английские названия, а на русский переводятся описательно и длинно. 1. Topping (прищипывание) Обычно имеется в виду обрезка главного стебля, но и боковых веток тоже. Чаще всего это делается, когда растиха угрожает стать слишком высокой для бокса. Обрезка производится сразу над узлом, так что остается небольшой пенек, у основания которого, в пазухах веерных листьев начинают активно формироваться два узла. Таким образом вместо одной центральной вершины мы получаем две новых. Помимо раздвоения происходит еще один очень важный эффект. В верхушках конопли вырабатывается гормон (ауксин), который заставляет растение всю основную энергию направлять сюда. Этот же гормон тормозит рост нижних боковых веток. При обрезке верхушки торможение роста нижних веток снимается, и они начинают более активно развиваться. То есть мы получаем в итоге бóльшую кустистость. Некоторые сорта конопли хорошо реагируют на топпинг, другие — наоборот плохо. Советуем вам учесть это при выборе сорта. Естественно, что обрезку стебля нужно производить на стадии вегетативного роста, а не на цвете. Кроме того, рекомендуют делать это в ночное время, когда большая часть гормонов направлена к корням. Если не хотите занести инфекцию, пользуйтесь стерильными инструментами. 2. FIM (другая разновидность прищипывания) Отличается от простого прищипывания тем, что надрез делается несколько ниже, захватывая и веерные листья, и часть зародышей узлов в их пазухах. Другой вариант — у еще нераскрывшейся кисточки на вершине удаляется 90%, а 10% оставляется. Такой способ обрезки позволяет получить не две новые вершинки, а вплоть до восьми. 3. Supecropping (Суперкроппинг) Этот метод заключается в том, что вы размягчаете стебель в определенном месте, сдавливая и массируя его между большим и указательным пальцами. В итоге, стебель начинает легко гнуться. Его можно пустить горизонтально или вообще загнуть вниз и там подвязать. Это приведет к двум вещам: во-первых, начнут стремительно развиваться боковые ветки, во-вторых, стебель в этом месте не только заживет и окрепнет, но еще и утолщится. В результате поток воды и питательных веществ через стебель станет более свободным, и это приведет к увеличению урожайности. Слово “supercropping” как раз и означает получение суперурожаев. 4. LST (low stress training, низко-стрессовый подгиб) LST, пожалуй, самый простой способ контроля высоты и формирования нужной формы кроны. Растения как бы распластывается в одной плоскости, так что расстояние от лампы до любой части растения оказывается одинаковым. Делать такой подгиб просто: пригибаешь центральный стебель или боковую ветку и фиксируешь их с помощью веревочки или проволоки. Привязывать ветки можно друг к другу или к краю горшка. Главное правило тут — наиболее сильные, энергично растущие побеги направляются к периферии, более слабые остаются в центре, под самой лампой. Итогом работы станет то, что почти без всякого стресса мы получим множество равноудаленных от лампы и практически одинаковых кол. Глядя на фото вверху, Вы можете сказать, где тут главный стебель, а где боковые ветки? По логике главная кола находится в одном из четырех углов, но пытаться определить ее по размеру бесполезно. 5. SCROG (сетчатый экран) SCROG представляет собой более сложный вариант LST. Вместо веревочек здесь используется сетчатый экран. Сделать такой экран просто. Делаем деревянную рамку по размерам бокса и натягиваем сетку из толстой лески. Далее фиксируем сетку горизонтально на определенной высоте. Когда верхушка конопли достигает сетчатого экрана, мы направляем ее в сторону. Тут правило в точности то же, что и при LST — самые энергично растущие побеги направляются от центра к краям сетки. Сразу приготовьтесь к тому, что работа будет не одноразовой. Направленная вбок верхушка тут же загнется кверху и сквозь одну из ячеек потянется в сторону света. Аккуратно заправляем ее обратно под сетку. То же самое проделываем и для боковых веток, день за днем превращая конопляный куст в распластанный по сетке зеленый ковер. Эту работу можно вести вплоть до второй недели на цвете. В конце концов, когда весь экран оказался заполнен, перестаем трогать нашу коноплю. После этого побеги начнут подниматься от сетки вертикально вверх, обрастать цветами и превращаться в толстые, пахучие колбаски. Обратите внимание, что все побеги, которым не удалось подняться над сеткой, удаляются. Под густым ковром они находятся в вечной тени, так что необходимо их удалить, чтобы куст не тратил на них энергию понапрасну. 6. SOG (Sea of Green, море зелени) Тут речь идет не о формировании кроны индивидуального растения, а о том, как эффективнее всего использовать энергию лампы на ограниченном пространстве. Один из способов — поставить много растений рядом друг с другом и не дать им вырасти слишком большими (рано перевести на цвет), в результате чего они образуют сплошной зеленый ковер, с макушками примерно на равной высоте, а значит на равном удалении от лампы. Метод SOG отлично подходит при выращивании из клонов, а вот из семян — не всегда. Некоторые сорта бывают недостаточно стабильны. Они всходят в разный срок, растут с неодинаковой скоростью, а главное могут относится к разным фенотипам: один — коренастый, другой — вытянутый, один кустистый, другой — растущей одной свечкой. И даже если сорт стабилен (дает одинаковые растения из семян), он может оказаться неподходящим для метода Sea of Green. Тут оптимальны будут растения, формирующие одну центральную колу и минимум боковых веток. А вот те, что сильно ветвятся и разрастаются в ширину, не подойдут. При выборе сорта желательно заранее ознакомиться с его свойствами и узнать, рекомендуют ли его для SOG. При выращивании конопли в режиме 12/12 от семени (что многими считается самым производительным методом), SOG будет возможен практически с любыми сортами, так как, получая только 12 часов света от семян, растения редко становятся кустистыми.
  9. Ah, tissue culture. One of the many new trend words in the cannabis-space. What is it, you ask? The definition states that tissue culture is: “the growth in an artificial medium of cells derived from living tissue.” In other words, you can basically regenerate an entire plant just off a single plant cell. Fascinating, right? It’s almost like cloning on steroids–but there are far more benefits. We got the chance to speak with Justin, a lab technician at DSG Labs; and Chris, a breeder at Compound Genetics. They answered specific questions regarding the tissue culture process, and were nice enough to allow us to share this earthly wisdom with the world. Consider this your go-to guide when you decide to take cloning to the next level. Mooney Moondog НT: Tell us a little about your company Justin: Darkest Shade of Grey Labs, or DSG Labs for short, was created to provide a service to fellow cannabis growers with the same problems we kept coming across when bringing in new genetics. We had the need to start collecting genetics to exponentially grow our flower demand while keeping up with the ever-changing palate and demand of fellow cannabis users. In doing this, we needed to clean some of our genetics of pathogens to ensure a clean, healthy garden. How did you get started in tissue culture? Justin: We started researching how large agriculture did this and found that tissue culture was a possible solution. We bought a few home kits–which were really a waste of time–and decided to invest a large sum of money in building a proper lab. We tried hiring a few different people to help develop proper methods and found that most of their knowledge was severely lacking. We started reading a lot of published papers along with attending events like the Society for In-Vitro Biology, or SIVB for short. Through these events, we found highly educated individuals and really pieced together a great group of people we could barrage with questions. Thousands of hours were spent doing R and D to develop the right environment and recipes. We were also able to further pursue a science-based genetics program with a few other like-minded individuals with extensive experience in the field who were coming up with the same roadblocks as us. We are now a team of people who are working in unison to create a science-based platform for genetic preservation, pathogen identification, pathogen eradication, micropropagation, genome sequencing, and marker-assisted breeding. Mooney Moondog How did Compound Genetics get started? Chris: Compound Genetics was created by a group of friends with a dream to preserve the essence of the cannabis they love, as well as seek out new expressions. We have been breeding, collecting, and cultivating rare genetics for years in an effort to bring the finest cannabis to the medical and recreational communities. Compound Genetics is best known for its work with Jet Fuel Gelato, the Menthol, and Legend Orange Apricot F2. What is tissue culture? Chris: Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissues, or organs under sterile conditions on a nutrient culture medium of known composition. Plant tissue culture is widely used to produce clones in a method known as micropropagation. Different techniques in plant tissue culture may offer certain advantages over traditional methods of propagation. How did you get introduced to tissue culture? Chris: Compound Genetics was introduced to tissue culture through extensive networking, and on the quest to create the greatest genetics possible utilizing solid scientific methods. Compound Genetics now has working relationships with several well-versed scientists to assist in the evolution of Compounds stable. What’s the benefits of tissue culture for cannabis seeds? Chris: The very direct benefit of tissue culture is the ability to clean your genetic library of any and all pathogens. This benefit can easily increase your vigor, yields, and potency. Tissue culture can also provide the ability to store your genetics in a safe, clean environment, long-term without much labor just in case anything in the cultivation environment may become contaminated. To create seeds from tissue culture would mean that the entire life must be spent in a sterile environment. There is no specific definition and everyone has a different idea of what tissue culture seeds really mean. There are people who will create seeds from mother plants that have been “TC’d” however unless done in a growth chamber the possibility of a virus is still highly likely if the plants were ever contaminated before. Unfortunately, certain virus/viroids can be transferred into the seeds in the breeding process. At Compound Genetics, we are creating a platform in which we can ensure our seeds are free of detrimental virus’ and viroid’s through tissue culture. How long does it take from plant cell to harvest? Chris: It takes about a year to truly establish a clean genetic library and beyond that only a few months for the breeding process. However, you only usually need to clean your library once as long as you keep TC versions banked and propagated at all times. Mooney Moondog What is required for tissue culture? Chris: You must be on the OCD spectrum to be talented at it. All kidding aside, you must know how to identify and eradicate all pathogens. You must, then, have very good aseptic SOPs and practice them well. Tools of the craft are generally similar to that which you would see in a traditional hospital’s surgery room. Plant TC is just the same as performing surgery in a hospital. You need a clean room, clean airflow, sterile tools, and to ensure you are also as clean as can be or you can contaminate the cultures. Is tissue culture the wave of the future? Chris: It seems that tissue culture might be the future for cannabis plants, depending on what route you have in mind. Some growers now are looking for a way to keep a large library of genetics in a small place. Instead of taking up an entire room for mother plants, you can store all your genetics on a shelf. Some are even looking to pick up dirty clones affected by mold, pests, and/or virus’ to do some research and development. They want to show everyone that you can acquire dirty clones and clean them up so they no longer are affected by the mold, pest, and/or virus through tissue culture. You will then have the same genetics you started with, but a sterile version of that clone. Apparently, you can even run old seeds with a lower germination rate and increase the chance of germination. Tissue culture has a nice variety of applications in cannabis. So to answer your question, I am sure. There’s no doubt in my mind that these methods will be adopted by many of the legal cannabis facilities around the world in the next few years. Who knows what else tissue culture would be able to offer by then?
  10. If you’re like most of the fine folks in the cannabis community, you’ve probably never heard of THC-O. But don’t feel bad. You’re not somehow an inferior pothead, and you won’t have your cannabis card (an analog of the man card) revoked. THC-O doesn’t get a lot of press and it doesn’t lend itself to DIY like THC oil and CBD oil. Plus, to really understand this unique substance, you have to delve into some pretty hairy chemistry. For that reason alone, THC-O is a non-starter for most people. And that’s a shame because, with the legalization of cannabis sweeping the planet, THC-O is emerging from the shadowy fringes as a viable (and powerful) option for both recreational and medicinal use. In this article, the experts at Honest Marijuana demystify THC-O to help you understand the cutting edge of cannabis science and how it applies to your particular condition. Fair warning: we will be dealing with a lot of chemistry concepts (not to mention plenty of multisyllabic words), but we promise we’ll do our best to make it as accessible as possible. What Is THC-O? THC-O is the shortened name (the slang term) for THC-O-Acetate, also referred to as THC Acetate and ATHC. That’s a lot of names for one substance. And, yes, it can be confusing. But the nice thing about cannabis culture is that it leans more toward brevity than accuracy (thank goodness or we’d always have to say or write “tetrahydrocannabinol”). So you’ll probably come across THC-O or ATHC more often. And while we’re on the subject of names, it’s important that you don’t confuse ATHC with THCA (or THCa). THCA is tetrahydrocannabinolic acid — the parent molecule of THC. As you can see from the full name, the “A” in THCA stands for acid. THCA occurs naturally in raw cannabis and converts to THC through decarboxylation. In ATHC, the “A” stands for acetate. That’s the first major difference. The second major difference is that ATHC can only be produced in a laboratory environment. You can’t pick up a few tools at your local hardware and whip a batch of ATHC in your kitchen. The results would be disastrous (that means flaming death, boys and girls). So when it comes to ATHC vs. THCA, be sure to make note of where the “A” is in the name (and even whether it’s upper or lower case) because the two chemicals are completely different animals. Cannabinoid First and foremost, THC-O is a cannabinoid just like THC, CBD, CBG, and CBN. At their most basic, cannabinoids are chemical compounds that act on the cannabinoid receptors in your brain. In other words, they’re the “stuff” that gets you high, relieves your pain, and takes the edge off your anxiety. The thing about THC-O is that it is not a naturally occurring cannabinoid (like THC and CBD). It takes some pretty hefty — and volatile — chemistry to create THC-O in a lab. That processing strips away all the other beneficial chemical compounds (terpenes and flavonoids) and leaves behind a potent THC isolate with no flavor and no aroma. In its natural state (or unnatural state, to be more precise), THC-O is just a heavy brown liquid more akin to motor oil than anything else. And when all is said and done, THC-O is what’s known in chemistry circles as an “analog.” An analog is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component. In this case, the original compound is THC. That makes THC-O a THC analog. Let’s investigate what that means in a bit more detail (with pictures!). What’s The Difference Between THC And THC-O? The best way to understand the difference between THC and THC-O is with pictures (they really are worth a thousand words). Here’s a picture of a regular old THC molecule: THC molecule Yeah, we know, it’s just a bunch of letters and numbers. But don’t worry too much about all the Hs and Cs and 3s. Focus instead on the lines and shapes. Trust us, it will make more sense when compared to the picture of THC-O. THC-O molecule The biggest difference between the two pictures (aside from the lack of Hs and Cs and 3s) is the upper right corner. In the top picture (THC molecule), there’s an OH. In the bottom picture (THC-O molecule), there’s an O and a new set of lines. That new set of lines is the acetate molecule (the “A” in ATHC). It’s the addition of that new molecule that sets ATHC apart from regular THC and makes it special. So what exactly does that new molecule do? We’ll answer that question in the next section. Why Is THC-O So Special? The addition of the acetate molecule to the base THC molecule does two very important things: It makes the THC molecule water-soluble. It makes the THC molecule stronger. We know you’re dying to hear about THC-O’s potency, but hold your horses. Let’s talk about water solubility first because that’s the basis of THC-O’s strength. THC-O Is Water Soluble Cannabinoids like THC and CBD are lipids (fatty oils) in their natural state. So, as a consumable product, they are fat-soluble (meaning they dissolve in oil). In your body, the dissolution of fats and oils undergoes a slightly different process than water-soluble substances like vitamins and fiber. In simplest terms, there’s an extra filtering step before the nutrients pass into your bloodstream. The difference in those processes means that, when it comes to cannabis consumption, less THC makes it into your bloodstream (because of the extra filtering) and, ultimately, to your brain (where all the magic happens). But water-soluble materials bypass that extra filtering step and pass directly into your bloodstream. That means more of the nutrient is available for use by your body. So when you consume THC-O, your body skips the extra filtering it would normally perform on regular THC (because THC-O is water-soluble) and passes a higher percentage of the molecules into your bloodstream. That, in essence, makes THC-O much more potent than regular smoked, dabbed, or ingested THC. How much more potent? We’ll give you the numbers in the next section. THC-O Is Stronger Hold on to your butts! Lab tests show that THC-O can be 300 percent stronger than regular THC. Yes, you read that right: 300 percent stronger. All of that because of a tiny acetate molecule and a bit of water-solubility! It makes you appreciate just how powerful a filtering agent your body can be. If you’re a thinking cannaseur, you may be wondering why anyone would need something that strong. And you’d be right. So let’s do away with the notion of using THC-O for recreational purposes — regular THC does just fine at getting you high — and focus instead on medicinal uses. That’s where THC-O really shines. It goes without saying that everyone is different. The biology of one person’s body is different from the biology of another person’s body. So, in some people, THC doesn’t have the desired medical effects (pain relief, anti-anxiety, etc.). THC-O, though, is, for all intents and purposes, a different version of the drug. Because of that, it can stimulate the cannabinoid receptors in your brain in a way that regular THC can’t. So where a THC pill or THC oil might not provide the pain relief you’re looking for, a THC-O product might be a viable alternative. That’s why more and more people are talking about THC-O these days — because of its potential medical benefits. So if you’re considering trying THC-O for the first time, start small (very small would be best) and increase your dosage slowly. It’s difficult to overdose on cannabinoids, but too much can take you way too high and give you a bad trip. That defeats the purpose of the whole endeavor. What Are The Effects OF THC-O? The medicinal effects of THC are pretty well-known. THC-O doesn’t differ in that regard. Where it does diverge is in its recreational effects (its high). Many describe the effects of THC-O as very spiritual and introspective. Some even liken the trip to LSD and shrooms — something regular THC products can’t claim. One thing of note is that, like edibles, you’ll have to wait 20 to 30 minutes before you feel the effects of THC-O. This is because your body has to separate (digest) the acetate molecule from the THC molecule before it’s sent to your brain. Should You Try THC-O For Yourself? Absolutely! Especially if you’re looking for a specific medical benefit. THC-O may be just the thing for you. Having said that, it’s essential to note that you should always buy your THC-O from a reputable dealer. Talk to the professionals at your local dispensary. They can help you find just the right product. And please, please, please don’t try to make THC-O on your own. The process requires special equipment and advanced training to get right. And volatile, flammable, and explosive chemicals are necessary. It’s not worth your life (or your home or your eyebrows) to do something that a lab can do better and safer. If you want to use THC-O, always buy, never DIY.
  11. New cannabis cultivators must learn to identify and treat various conditions in the grow room promptly and accurately. Here are the most common marijuana-growing problems and how to solve them quickly and effectively. My leaves are turning yellow and falling off. What gives? This is an indication that your plant is short on nitrogen, an essential nutrient. As a result, the plant is using the available nitrogen stored within its leaves for photosynthesis and chlorophyll production. You may have returned to the garden to find that a few of the most significant fan leaves have become lifeless and the connecting part of the leaf can be flicked off. What you want to do here is remove the yellowing leaves for a few different reasons. You will want them out of sight and out of the garden as insects are attracted to the color yellow. (This is why sticky strips made for catching flies are yellow.) Another reason to lose the leaves is that they’re useless to the plant and removing them will allow more light to the lower parts of the plant that the fan leaves were covering. If you find that the newest smaller leaves are becoming bright yellow and brittle, then you need to immediately add nitrogen that’s readily available. Add organic matter that’s in a state of humification, such as worm humus or tea, liquid seaweed, fish emulsions, blood meal or other things that are naturally high in nitrogen. Why is there a rotten-egg-like smell coming from my grow room? This will most likely happen when you are growing organically. That foul sewer-like smell is produced by a microbe that is in the growing medium. The bacteria are anaerobic, which means they thrive in environments that are waterlogged with low oxygen—basically, swamp conditions. If you get a whiff of sulfur and rotten egg, then you know this is the cause. To prevent this, introduce hydrogen peroxide into the growing medium at 3 percent strength. This is distilled water with an extra hydrogen molecule attached, an unstable molecule. Once it is in contact with any bacteria, it will starve the organism of oxygen and kill it. It will also kill any beneficial bacteria you have in your grow medium; however, your roots will revive and the anaerobic bacteria will disappear. A good tip here is to make sure your growing medium is not waterlogged. If you’re bottom-feeding, never let your plants sit directly in a tray of stagnant water. This is precisely how anaerobic bacteria are formed, and even more so if you’re using organic nutrients. Why do the leaves of my plant have tiny yellow or white dots on them? If you’ve noticed under close inspection that your fan leaves and newest growth have tiny yellow blotches on them, then, sadly, you have signs of spider mites. You will not notice these tiny pests with the naked eye; you can only see the collateral damage they leave behind. A spider-mite infection at any stage of the grow can be devastating, so my advice here is to be careful where you source your clones from. It’s important to limit any potential threats that are being brought into the garden. You’ll also want to reduce your humidity, as spider mites thrive in a clammy environment. It’s always good to have living predators on standby ready to patrol your garden. Once you have introduced these predators into your grow space, the results will be a slow reduction of the number of spider mites or whatever problematic insects you’re dealing with. Webbing is a sure sign of a spider mite infestation gone awry I tried to cut the top of a shoot to create two shoots, but I missed. What will happen now? Don’t worry, as this is a technique practiced on a broad spectrum by all types of growers. It entails the removal of about 70-80 percent of a shoot so that enough is left behind for the plant to reduce the growth hormone auxin but also promote lateral growth from the lowest parts of the shoot that was cut. It’s called “fimming,” for “Fuck, I missed.” If you intended to grow two new shoots from one, this can still happen, but you need to wait about 10 days for the plant to recover and become bushy. Then you can start the process to top the plant again. My once white and fluffy roots are now thin, fragile and brown. What happened? You’ve got what’s called root rot, and this happens when the growth medium becomes waterlogged. Roots need oxygen to breathe during their search for moisture and nutrients. Again, using hydrogen peroxide will help bring the roots back to life, but so will repotting the plants into a medium that contains plenty of air pockets. A good idea is to use a 50 percent coco and 50 percent perlite mix as a medium, and adding worm castings, blood meal and any humate rich in nitrogen. You will notice your roots bounce back to life and form new fluffy root hairs, so ensure that the growing medium is dry more often than wet. I noticed spiderwebs forming around the leaves. What is this? This is not a web from a spider that has somehow entered the garden, but instead a full infestation of spider mites. These pests can lay eggs and multiply in a short time in the right environment, so controlling that situation with clinical effect is necessary. When you inspect your plants, you need to look at each one in the garden and remember that the spider mites are so small that they can move from plant to plant using the air currents from the fans in the room. Get a magnifying glass and get close up and personal in order to identify their presence; once you do, you can then try and control the problem with predators that will depopulate the spider-mite colony. There are tiny gray flies on the surface of my growing medium. Where did they come from? These little fly larvae can be frustrating, and they can even be inside the soil or coco from a grow store. There is not much you can do about these apart from setting up sticky fly traps. You can also keep the top of your grow medium dry and maintain constant air flow, as adult flies cannot lay their eggs in dry growing medium. Supporting branches by using a screen increases yields substantially I’ve been told to use a screen on my next grow for a more significant yield. Why should I do this? Using a screen at canopy level is a growing technique in which leaves above the screen are kept and leaves below the screen are removed. The screen not only adds support for heavy branches; it also allows you to expand your canopy greatly by training your plants during the vegetative stage. The idea with a screen is to pull the new trained shoots through each square strategically, so that when the plant flowers, the area above the screen is dedicated to producing dense buds. When you have efficiently filled every square of the screen and removed the irrelevant lower growth, the plant will now focus all its energy on the upper canopy above the screen. Why are my temperature and humidity so high? There can be several factors why you cannot get your temperature under 80°F and your humidity is uncontrollable. This is not good and can lead to all sorts of problems, particularly during the flowering period. If you have your ventilation system dialed in, it should remove and recycle the air in your space between 15 to 20 times per hour. One reason that many grow rooms fail is that the ventilation is not on par with what is required to remove the hot, stagnant air and to bring in carbon dioxide. The other reason why your temperature can be sky-high is that you have your lights too low. Hot air will rise, and cool air will sink. You should have cool fresh air blowing in from an intake fan that is smaller in volume than the outtake fan. The space should perform as a vacuum—dispelling hot air from the grow lights and ballasts and replacing it with fresh air from the lowest part of the space. Another tip is to keep your carbon filters and wall fans on even during the lights-out period. If you consider how the hot temperature and high humidity level build up, you can see that the heat cannot escape and adds to the moisture that forms on the walls and the surface of the plants. This is how powdery mildew and mold become a threat, so make sure you have constant fresh-air cycles and persistent blowing fans that mimic nature. There’s white powder all over the leaves when I check my plants. What is this? This is called powdery mildew (PM), a living spore that attaches itself to the surface of your leaves. This fungus will grow on fresh foliage and can cause problems to an entire grow room in a short time. PM travels through the air and requires wet and damp conditions with little airflow. This unwanted fungus can be treated with acidic-based washes, or with hydrogen peroxide and then rubbed off. It can take several days to entirely remove a PM infection, so keeping a close eye on your plants is essential at this stage. Root-bound plants should be transplanted into fresh growing medium. What do I do about the rusty-brown and yellow spots on my leaves? Rusty-brown spots on the lower leaves are your plant’s way of telling you that it is deficient in calcium and magnesium. Calcium plays a huge role in the cell division of plants, alongside potassium. Use Epsom salts to boost your nutrients, or get a Cal-Mag supplement from your grow store. The grow shop told me that my plants are showing a deficiency and that I should feed them trace elements. What do they mean? Well, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are the three primary nutrients for your plants. The other remaining nutrients, called micronutrients or trace elements, are calcium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, boron, zinc and copper. Cannabis requires this full lineup of nutrients to be able to do complex jobs deep down at the cellular level. My plants are root-bound. What should I do? Root-bound pots may look good, and many naive growers will show them off with pride without realizing that their plant has become restricted. When growing in a fabric pot or a pot with air holes in the bottom, roots will have a chance to come into contact with air and, as a result, react by pruning themselves. Fibrous roots will multiply and turn back on themselves and repeat this process like a spider does when building the structure for a web. Prepare a larger container with a new medium into which to transplant. Wet your existing grow medium and turn the plant upside down with your fingers around the base of the main stem, carefully removing the entire root ball and placing it into the new medium. When I touch my grow medium with my hands, the soil is cold and wet. Is this good or bad? Cold temperatures are never good when it comes to growing cannabis. A cold medium can mean several things: poor air circulation, inconsistent wet and dry periods, the breeding of anaerobic bacteria, roots unable to take up phosphorus efficiently or sparse microbial life. You want your grow medium to be warm, and a good tip here is to use felt pots and have a temperature of 75°F around the base and tops of the plants. Lifting your pots off the ground and making sure they’re not touching the cold floors can make a big difference. Add a heater set at a low temperature to keep the air nice and warm for the roots. “Big roots mean big fruits,” as the adage goes, so keep the roots and microbes warm and happy. If you are hand-watering or bottom-feeding, use half as much nutrient solution twice as often. This can be more beneficial in the long run than finding out the hard way and having to work backward to find out where you went wrong. Good luck in growing your killer plants, and I hope these diagnostics have helped you already.
  12. At the center of the Pacific Ocean, America’s 50th state has finally begun producing medicinal pot in this Polynesian archipelago. Take a trip inside Aloha Green Apothecary, the first state-licensed facility cultivating and selling medical marijuana for the patients of Hawaii. Pot in Paradise Nobody knows when marijuana first appeared in Hawaii, but the remote islands have been inextricably linked to the legend of the pakalolo, or numbing leaf, for centuries. The combination of rich volcanic soil, plentiful sunshine, tropical breezes and abundant rainfall proved irresistible to resourceful locals looking to produce their own tropical cannabis. Guerrilla weed growers thrived in their camouflaged hilltop plots, growing cannabis crops year-round for the insatiable appetites of the laid-back island populace. Over time, strains brought to the islands from across the oceans adapted and acclimated to Hawaii’s unique environment and were passed down from generation to generation. These exotic varieties, such as Kona Gold, Puna Budder and, of course, the legendary Maui Wowie, inspired generations of surfers and hippies looking for the signature “electric” buzz. Old-timers still rave about the uplifting aspects of these sativa-dominant strains, eagerly reminiscing about their mildly hallucinogenic high with no “ceiling”—a toker could keep puffing and puffing and yet still reach new heights of blissful euphoria. Recent research has found that these varieties are especially rich in THCV, dubbed the “sports car of cannabinoids” by Steep Hill Labs, due to the quick onset and relatively short duration of psychoactive effects. Strains with higher levels of THC come on quite strong and can induce panic and anxiety in some users if they aren’t careful. Some patients also report that THCV works as an appetite suppressant, which, if true, imparts this compound with tremendous potential from a pharmaceutical perspective. Hawaiian Punch Hawaii’s marijuana history, however, took a turn for the worse in the 1980s with Operation Green Harvest, a decades-long campaign that saw federal, state and local law-enforcement agencies using assault helicopters, masked officers with AK-47s and more in an attempt to eradicate domestic cannabis cultivation and lock up farmers. This aggressive effort devastated the islands’ cultivation community as well as pot consumers, and many say the misguided fiasco helped lead to an epidemic of hard-drug use and a methamphetamine crisis that continues to this day. The dark days for Hawaiian dankness would continue for years until the voters finally decided to make a change. Although Hawaii legalized medical marijuana for qualified patients and caregivers in 2000, it wasn’t until almost 20 years later, in 2016, that the state finalized the rules governing its dispensary program. These new regulations require eight state-licensed dispensaries to grow, manufacture and sell their own products to eligible patients with a valid state registration card. The one I’m visiting, Aloha Green Apothecary, opened in 2016 with a traditional Hawaiian blessing ceremony in downtown Honolulu on the beautiful island of Oahu. Everything it sells must be lab-tested for cannabinoid profile, pesticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals, moisture content, microbial impurities and solvents (when applicable). The strict guidelines also require an FBI background check for all employees or visitors, which means that for the first time in my cannabis-cultivation reporting career, I have to apply for permission from the government to visit a legal grow. As Aloha Green’s director, Helen Cho, assists me through the process, I joke about how the times have changed: When I first started covering clandestine indoor pot farms for НT almost 20 years ago, I sometimes had to ride in the trunk of a car or wear a blindfold. Now I was politely asking the feds to allow me to pay a visit to a licensed facility! Aloha Grows Green Aloha Green Apothecary produces its flowers and extracts on the island of Oahu on land that was formerly part of the massive Dole Plantation. I drove out to meet this dedicated team of locals to find out more about their commitment to creating quality medicine using locally sourced materials. Upon approach, the tropical landscape gave way to a well-protected seven-acre plot surrounded by ample security fencing and cameras. The rich, dark-red volcanic soil and bright sunshine reveal this as a place where agriculture has thrived for ages and will continue to do so. My tour begins with Aloha Green’s head grower, Daniel Richardson, excitedly explaining his philosophy for growing artisanal cannabis for the community of patients in Hawaii. The goal is to tread lightly, making use of as much local material as possible while taking advantage of the natural environment by using greenhouses to grow some of Aloha Green’s flowers. By reusing whatever they can, the Aloha team strives to treat the community and their patients with the respect they deserve. In fact, Aloha Green is the first state licensee to use several greenhouses to grow its flowers, which has cut the cost of production by a third—all the more important as Hawaii has the most expensive electricity in the United States. The company also has plans to convert to solar for much of its power usage in the future as well. Aloha’s growers are even experimenting with cover crops such as clover to provide nitrogen while also acting as a mulch to conserve water potentially lost to evaporation. Wood chips on top of the growing medium acts as insulation from water loss as well. Moms and Clones Mother plants at Aloha Green are nurtured under fluorescent and HID (high-intensity discharge) lighting and hand-fed with a nutrient solution to keep them thriving. Mother-plant vegging rooms are climate-controlled with fans, ensuring that air is circulating and not stagnant. The moms are grown in large containers so that their roots can find plenty of space and expand. This ensures that the plant up top stays healthy and continues to create new growing shoots from which to take and root clones. Clones root in plugs in meticulously labeled plastic trays with clear lids under fluorescent lighting tubes to maintain heat and humidity for ultimate rooting success. They’re cut from healthy mother plants, dipped into rooting-hormone gel and then gently secured into their individual rooting cubes. The larger fan leaves are then trimmed down to alleviate the pressure on the cutting to maintain life. Once they’re showing healthy white roots from the bottom of their plugs, they’re ready to plant into larger pots filled with premixed growing medium and move into the vegetative stage of growth. Lower branches and leaf growth are removed to increase airflow beneath the canopy to avoid possible humidity buildup. Light, Soil and Water In all, there are four indoor flowering rooms and four greenhouse sections at Aloha Green for a total of eight separate growing chambers. The indoor plants are grown under Gavita double-ended HPS (high-pressure sodium) 1,000-watt lights on a staggered flowering schedule and harvested every two weeks. Plants in the greenhouses are supplemented with lighting as well when sunlight isn’t sufficient. For the growing medium, the team at Aloha Green make their own “supersoil” mix. It’s a combination of rich local soil plus compost from a nearby school. Because of the many microclimates on Oahu, the soil Aloha Green uses is unique and diverse with 10 of 12 soil varieties on the island represented. Volcanic pumice is added instead of perlite to loosen up the soil. This airy loam is then amended with local Hawaiian chicken manure, worm castings, fish waste, and seaweed. The company has even experimented with turning macadamia-nut shells into biochar. Aloha Green’s goal is to use no added nutrients, and it utilizes drip emitters to provide mostly plain water directly to the root zone. Local mulch from the wood of the monkeypod tree keeps the soil surface cool and reduces water waste from evaporation. Ideally, Aloha Green will reuse its soil over and over in a closed-loop system that improves the growing medium with each growing cycle. Each plant is tagged from seed to harvest with its strain name and germination date, and wooden stakes are used to hold up branches that become weighed down with heavy flowers. The water itself comes from a 1,000-foot-deep well tapped on the premises. The water is filtered naturally through lava rock and comes out with very low levels of any minerals or contaminants. Multiple drippers in each growing container also provide redundancy in case of a clogged tube or emitter. Wet walls and swamp coolers reduce heat in the greenhouses on really hot days and desiccant-based dehumidifiers remove moisture in the air when necessary. Plants sit on trays that allow airflow underneath the canopy to reduce the probability of mold or mildew collecting in moist air pockets. Excess water and nutrient solution easily drain out of the bottom of the containers to prevent the pots from sitting in stagnant liquid. Insect Controls Chief operating officer Tai Cheng and director of integrated strategy Helen Cho explain the strict governmental regulations to me, which include requirements to grow all plants indoors, lab-testing all of the products and using only state-approved pesticides on the crops. In fact, as Cheng tells me, “We can’t have testing show more than 1 ppm [part per million] in the finished product of any banned pesticides, which is essentially the same as none. We’re also not allowed to use beneficial bugs because they are not available in abundance on the island. Strict [agricultural] controls don’t allow for them to be delivered. So we have the strict pesticide regime of Oregon without the help of beneficials.” Aloha Green growers use beans as indicator, or trap, plants, and rosemary and other deterrent plants to repel insects as well. Workers and visitors alike wear full-body protective suits including booties and hoods to avoid any potential contamination, and yellow sticky pest strips are everywhere in order to get an early warning as to any potential pest invasions. A strict integrated pest-management system ensures that the flowers and concentrates produced here are clean and pass their tests with flying colors. Faded Flush As the plants at Aloha Green approach maturity, they’re aggressively flushed with plain pH-balanced water. Head grower Daniel Richardson emphasizes the importance of a proper flush in order to produce flowers that can be considered proper medicine for patients. He insists that whether Aloha Green’s end product is used for flowers, concentrates, edibles or tinctures, it’s clean and free of excess chlorophyll and nutrient-salt buildup. As I walk around the growing chamber next to be harvested, I can see the fall colors of the fan leaves on display. These fading hues are a sure sign of a successful flush, and the end result will be buds that burn cleanly to a wispy white ash—perfect for connoisseurs and patients alike. The properly flushed plants are now in the final stretch, during which their trichome gland heads will swell with essential oils in preparation for harvest. Hawaiian Harvest When the time to take down a roomful of vegetation has been determined, the plants are pre-trimmed while still alive. Large fan leaves are removed by hand from each plant in preparation for the drying process. Then branches are individually hung to dry in rooms environmentally controlled by Argus climate systems. Sensors maintain specific temperature and humidity while UV light kills off any potential pests or mold spores, and Airocide filters purify the air. The indoor harvests are all hand-trimmed dry prior to curing, while the yield from the greenhouses is machine-trimmed using industrial Twister units and then dried on individual racks. Trim and leaf leftovers are set aside for ethanol extraction to make RSO (Rick Simpson Oil) for oral ingestion. The company also produces oil, shatter, rosin wax, balms and tinctures, so there’s something for every patient on the shelves of Aloha Green Apothecary.
  13. Our yearly roundup of the best grow gear of the year started in 1998 and was dubbed the STASH Awards (for Significant Technological Achievements in Secretive Horticulture). Behold our informed choices for the finest cultivation equipment of 2018. BC Northern Nights Roommate Best Grow Box: The BC Northern Lights Roommate For almost 20 years, BC Northern Lights has created and innovated the highest-quality grow boxes on earth. The state-of-the-art units the company produces are still the only CSA/UL safety-approved boxes available, and the BCNL customer-service team provides round-the-clock support. Aspiring growers interested in growing a few plants for personal use will love the Roommate—a compact, lockable, odor-free and automated box on casters that’s discreetly shipped and ready to plug and play in soil or hydroponic applications. Price: $2250 Ultra Trimmer Best Trimming Machine: The Ultra Trimmer The biggest knock on industrial trimmers has always been that they destroy the gland heads containing the essential oils we’re after. The units from Ultra Trimmer simulate scissors and avoid manhandling precious flowers while preserving the trichomes. The company’s even been giving live demonstrations with microscopes at our Cannabis Cups for over five years to show how gently the machines work. It’s no secret why Ultra Trimmers are the first products to be federally patented specifically for trimming cannabis. $4,250, Collective; $8,000, Industrial Quest Dehumidifier Best Dehumidifiers: Quest Dehumidifiers High relative humidity causes excess moisture and condensation that can ruin a ganja garden quicker than a rabbit gets fucked. Avoid potential issues with mold, mildew, and pests by employing one of the powerful dehumidifiers from Quest, each built to powerfully yet efficiently remove water from the air. At Quest, there’s a unit for every size and application, including portable and overhead versions. So take control of your environment and reap the benefits of a proper grow room climate. Prices vary Stash Box Best Grow Tent: The Stash Box from HighDroGro If you seek an affordable grow tent that’s easy to assemble and take down, look no further than the Stash Box. This sturdy tent is built with three windows, heavy-duty lightproof zippers, a ducting port for venting and air-purification equipment, and a removable inner flood-prevention insert tray. It’s shipped in a compact and discreet box with everything you need to get growing including T5 fluorescent lights to keep heat at a minimum, carbon filters, humidity and temperature monitors, and quiet but efficient fans. Price: $665 Wiggle Worm Soil Builder Best Worm Castings: Wiggle Worm Soil Builder Nature provides the best plant food, and smart farmers know that earthworms are the workhorse of a productive organic garden. Rich in nutrients and trace minerals, worm poop makes for a perfect mild fertilizer and soil amendment. The odor-free castings in Wiggle Worm Soil Builder come with a money-back guarantee—so give them a try and your plants will be thankful. Mix the castings into your soil and top-dress your plants as needed for the best results. $9.10, 4.5 lbs.; $15.49, 15 lbs.; $26.89, 30 lbs. Suite Leaf Finish Best Flavor Enhancer: Suite Leaf Finish Proper feeding during the middle to late stages of flowering can make or break a harvest due to the specific nutritional requirements of blooming cannabis plants. Suite Leaf Finish is a vegan formulation designed to naturally enhance essential-oil production during this all-important phase of growth. Perfect for soil or hydroponics, this nutritional supplement greatly improves the flavor and scent of your flowers and will increase the terpene profile significantly. Grow loud and finish strong! $12.82, 250 ml.; $24.65, qt.; $56.95, gal. Green Cleaner Best Pest Control: Green Cleaner from Central Coast Garden Products We’re always looking for safe and natural ways to combat pests and powdery mildew in our gardens. Central Coast’s Green Cleaner kills mature bugs and their eggs while discouraging and repelling mold as well. The mixture coats and suffocates spider mites, whiteflies, aphids, broad mites, and russet mites. Spray it as a foliar application as needed, making sure to drench the surface of your medium and the underside of your leaves. Also, try Central Coast’s Root Cleaner to fight pathogens and pests at the soil level. Prices vary Mykos from Xtreme Gardening Best Mycorrhizal Product: Mykos from Xtreme Gardening Organic growers have learned the benefits of colonizing their living soil medium with a beneficial fungal network. These microbes work in conjunction with plant roots to break down nutrients and also act as an inoculant to protect the plant from pests, pathogens, and disease. OMRI-certified Mykos contains a single species found to help store plant food and water while enhancing root uptake and increasing yields substantially. Available as a granular spread or a wettable powder, this miracle product works wonders. Prices vary Under Current Evolution 9XL Best Hydroponic System: Under Current Evolution 9XL from Current Culture H2O Explosive hydroponic growth rates result when plant roots have access to highly oxygenated nutrient solution. The patented Sub-Current Culture system in the UCE9XL utilizes premium pumps to recirculate a supercharged fluid rich with dissolved oxygen for previously unattainable levels of absorption. The nine-plant model is perfect for a 10′ x 10′ room or tent under four 600-watt HID lights, and the XL version provides extra room for lateral growth, which greatly increases yields. Starting at $2,054 Advanced Nutrients Best Wetting Agent: Wet Betty from Advanced Nutrients The plant scientists at Advanced Nutrients understand that when plant-food solution sits on top of hard soil, roots can’t properly absorb the vital liquid and food. Wet Betty, a non-ionic surfactant, lessens surface tension while softening and enhancing water droplets for better uptake, leading to stronger growth and bigger harvests. Great as a soil drench or foliar feed, Wet Betty helps your nutes permeate more efficiently and effectively to maximize yields. Prices vary Can-Filters Best Air Filtration: Can-Filters Clean air is absolutely crucial to any successful marijuana-growing op large or small. Can-Filters have been at the forefront of ventilation and filtration for nearly three decades, and the company is still innovating with its line of dependable filters, fans, ducting and accessories. The pelletized and activated charcoal in the units acts like a sponge, removing odor particles from the spent air and scrubbing it clean of any telltale scents before being expelled out of the space. Starting at $142.13 Solis Tek Best Grow Lighting: Solis Tek Solis Tek has been at the forefront of indoor grow-lighting equipment research and technology for over a decade. Its complete line of products includes the best digital HID (high-intensity discharge) lighting systems including HPS (high-pressure sodium) and MH (metal halide) fixtures as well as cutting-edge efficient CMH (ceramic metal halide) units with both single and double-ended lamps. Solis Tek’s controllers, remote ballasts and reflectors make safely growing cannabis with multiple lighting systems heat-free and simple. Prices vary
  14. Organic Fire on the Mountain It’s no secret that the Emerald Triangle, in Northern California, has been the reigning champ of cannabis production in the United States for decades. However, with the advent of legal recreational pot in California, the rules of the game have changed. Growers are now forced to comply with legalization restrictions while hopefully not losing sight of what should be the goal—growing great pot. For many of us, this is a breath of fresh air, literally, as chemical fertilizers and pesticides will no longer fly thanks to lab testing. If you’re new to farming or transitioning from nonorganic farming practices, growing organically is the highest ideal a farmer can strive for. It’s essentially replicating the soil biology in the natural world around us, but in our garden beds. From developing good soil and fertilizers to harvesting and trimming for quality hash production, we’ll share some secrets and tips on how a couple of mom-and-pop operations are still getting it done the organic way. About an hour outside the town of Willow Creek, up one of the many long dirt roads and perched on a boreal-forest ridge, sits Love and Laughter Farms. The farm is an impressive tract of forested land that rises from a creek and valley to a craggy mountaintop, and it is home to black bears, cougars and fishers. Old-growth Douglas fir and madrone surround the two gardens that sit high atop the mountain at an impressive 3,900 feet. Love and Laughter was founded by Stephen DiTuro and his partner, Brianne Aalders, as a small medical farm in the late 2000s. With backgrounds in chemistry, environmental engineering and herbal medicine, the couple have always aimed at producing medical-grade full-sun flowers with a respect for sustainable practices. Now almost a decade later, the crew at Love and Laughter is navigating the waters of legalization, including the emerging recreational market, and learning to embrace California’s new regulatory landscape. A wall of drying plants releases its moisture; Ian Stout The Soil Is Everything One can spend a lifetime reading about soil—and if you’re a farmer, you should. For those embracing legalization and organic growing methods, proper soil development begins with knowing what you’ve got. Whether you’ve just had your first load of soil dumped or you’re an experienced grower with established beds, you should have a soil sample tested by a local soil-testing lab. Through the analysis, the lab establishes the pH balance, nutrient content, fungal and bacterial count, and soil composition. This is especially important if the soil might have had chemical fertilizers and pesticides running through it in the past. Many of those compounds are insoluble, or they break down extremely slowly, and can stick around for many years. Even clone stock from mother plants that were treated with conventional fertilizers and nonorganic pest-management products can introduce contaminants into a grow site, which can lead to a dirty test at market time. If you’re pretty sure that your beds are clean and want to forgo the soil test, an electric soil or electrode meter, available at your local hardware store, is highly recommended to help dial in your pH. pH levels are the key to unlocking a plant’s ability to synthesize the provided nutrients. For outdoor growing, the soil pH should ideally be in the range of 6.4-6.8. All too often, nutrient deficiencies in the growth cycle can be traced right back to a pH imbalance. There are essentially two kinds of outdoor growing styles when it comes to garden beds: aboveground or in ground, or, to put it in grower parlance, pots or trenches. Both have their pros and cons, but trench beds can be developed over time. The idea is to have soil that consists of the necessary components of organic matter, minerals, air and water, but also contains a healthy mix of bacteria, fungi and worms. Essentially, it’s the creation of a whole permaculture environment in the growing beds that, if properly maintained, will give back to the plants year after year. The key minerals or macronutrients for marijuana are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, or NPK. Nitrogen helps spur growth and photosynthesis in the plants’ vegetative cycle. Initially during this phase, the nitrogen level in the fertilizer should be raised, as the plants will require more of it as they grow through the summer. Phosphorus is needed for nutrient uptake, and it also has its part in the vegetative cycle, but it’s usually associated with flowering. Initially during the vegetative stage, phosphorus levels should remain lower. As flowering approaches, nitrogen should be dialed back and phosphorus and potassium levels increased. Sometimes overlooked, potassium takes care of the plant’s roots, metabolism and immune system. During flowering, phosphorus and potassium will be the driving force in flower or bud production. The amount of phosphorus and potassium used during this time has a direct impact on the growth and final size of the buds. Dry and liquid amendments, including compost teas, should be used as organic fertilizers. Dry amendments, which are used as a general fertilizer and soil conditioner, are more insoluble and break down slowly over time. Compost teas are like a quick hit, and because they are soluble or water-based, the plant will be available to synthesize or use the nutrients more quickly. Both types of amendments can be used on a schedule throughout the season, but the teas should be used to quickly correct for deficiencies or to add small amounts of nutrients at different stages of the growth cycle when nutrient requirements change. Growing beds are filled with organic material in mounds; Ian Stout So How Do They Do It? The foundation of Love and Laughter’s soil begins with a growing method called Hügelkultur, or “hill mound,” which is kind of a mix between the in-ground and aboveground methods. Hügelkultur is an ancient practice, used by many native peoples around the world, but it gained its most recent popularity through farmers in Germany and Eastern Europe. The basic idea of Hügelkultur is to bury wood and other organic plant material in a trench beneath the growing bed. Soil and other nutrient compounds are then added and mounded slightly above the existing ground level. As the wood matter slowly rots underground, it creates a long-term source of nutrients rich in nitrogen, increases water retention, helps aerate the soil and produces heat that will keep roots happy as fall temperatures drop during the flowering season. For the gardens at Love and Laughter Farms, Hügelkultur was implemented in a big way. For the bed rows, five-foot-wide trenches were dug five feet deep, then filled with various types of oak (except for black oak, which has excessive toxins in its acorns). After the wood and leaf matter were placed at the bottom of the trench, organic mushroom soil, loaded with earthworms, was added on top of the wood base. Next, mealworm castings from an organic avocado farm in Southern California were mixed into the mushroom soil. Finally, a 50/50 mix of organic compost and potting soil, from a local landscape supplier, was added on top—just the tip of the iceberg of the Hügelkultur trench. The soil was then mounded over with the peak of the bed sitting about 16-20 inches above ground level. As the plant matter underneath decomposes with the help of proper amendments, the soil is rich in life and singing. In the spring, the beds are weeded of their winter ground cover of alfalfa. Love and Laughter Farms practices a “no-till” method of farming. This means that other than the removal of the ground cover, there’s no root-ball removal or yearly tillage of the soil as is commonly practiced in modern commercial and home farming. After the harvest, stalks are cut as close to the soil surface as possible. By not disturbing the soil, healthy bacteria, fungi and worms are not harmed and allowed to flourish. Put Them in the Ground After the beds have been prepped and fertilized, and the proper spacing has been determined, the plants are ready to go in the ground. For each plant, a hole four times the size of the root-ball is dug out of the beds. The soil is saved and mixed with composted goat manure, mealworm castings, mushroom compost and mycorrhizal powder. This will surround the plant with an added mix of bacteria and fungi along with what’s already present in the soil. The manure is composted before being directly applied, which removes excessive ammonia and nitrogen levels that can burn plant roots, and it also kills grass seeds that are still alive in the manure, saving the farmers many hours’ worth of weeding and nutrient loss to pesky weeds. Once the plants are in the ground, they’ll receive only water for the first week or so as the roots establish themselves. Supercritical CO2 oil fills up cartridges for vape pens; Ian Stout The Magic of Tea As the roots take hold and the young plants begin to grow, custom compost teas are introduced into the feeding regimen. Although there’s a wide variety of great concentrated premixed solutions on the market, Love and Laughter Farms’ custom tea consists of, but is not limited to, bat guano, earthworm and mealworm castings, yucca extract, silica, bacteria, fungal spores, bone meal, oyster shells, dolomite lime, fish concentrate and emulsion, seaweed powder and molasses, which is a chelating agent. The compost tea is brewed in 60-gallon pickle barrels in the shade for 24 hours at an ideal temperature of 72°F. Aeration with a standard aquarium pump and air-stone diffusers produces oxygen supersaturation. When the tea is done, it’s hand-watered into the plant wells through a standard inline feeder, usually a quart dispersed throughout 150 gallons of water. Initially, the tea is richer in nitrogen, but a couple weeks before flowering begins the nitrogen is dialed back and a higher-phosphorus bat-guano solution is maintained. Some people like dialing the nitrogen way back, but Love and Laughter actually keeps it somewhat high. This keeps the plants stronger and more disease- and pest-resistant throughout the plant’s natural life cycle. Prune Her for Production There are many techniques out there for pruning marijuana for higher yields. The preferred method at Love and Laughter is a technique called bending. The structure of the plants will vary depending on whether they’re indica- or sativa-dominant and how far along they are, but essentially young plants will have a main stem referred to as an apical meristem and then sub-stems called laterals. Traditionally, growers cut main or apical meristems, from which several more meristems will grow. These additional stems are the key to creating larger colas versus one main cola on an unpruned plant. Cherry Pie is a well-known strain in Humboldt County; Ian Stout Cutting, however, can stress the plant for sometimes up to a week or more. By bending the main stem 90 degrees 7-10 days after the young plants are in, auxiliary growth points are created. And from this auxiliary growth point, several more meristems will begin to grow (eventually forming additional colas). This process is ideally repeated three or four times over the vegetative cycle, but should be completed a couple weeks before flowering begins. Another important aspect which falls under pruning is defoliating. Yellow leaves will develop on marijuana plants for a variety of reasons, but the most common are due to nitrogen deficiencies, overwatering, a pH imbalance or shock from cold weather. It’s easy to correct for these problems, but leaves that have begun to die are removed before they start to mold. Another defoliating technique that increases yield is the selective removal of fan leaves throughout the plant. This creates better airflow and allows more light into the inner and lower canopy, which in turn creates larger buds in places that might usually end up with larf (spindly lesser buds). By paying attention to the plants throughout the day, farmers can see which ones receive less light and remove those selectively. Lastly, if the bottom third of lower branches are removed (which usually produce larf anyhow), a plant will divert its energy up to the apical buds. This results in healthier colas and bigger yields. Flush Away A common mistake that novice growers make is improperly flushing before the end of flowering. Flushing helps the weed burn cleaner and improves aroma and flavor. Different strains, even different phenotypes of a same strain, will have different flowering times. By knowing the flowering time of the strain you’re growing, you can subtract two weeks from the total flowering time. Also, paying attention to the trichomes will help as well. If they look big and sticky but are still clear, it’s a good point to stop fertilizing. Love and Laughter harvests when about half of the resin glands have turned from milky to amber. During the last two weeks, a good trick is to flush by alternating between water alone and water mixed with humic acid, fulvic acid and molasses. This mixture will help break down the remaining insoluble fertilizer still in the soil and stems. Golden Ending Until very recently, many farmers discarded their trim and waste material. But in a short time, this material has become a sought-after commodity for those with knowledge of extraction techniques. While nugs may yield the most flavorful concentrates, hand trim and even machine trim can be more valuable to an extractor’s bottom line. Take a half day’s drive down Highway 101 to Route 1, at Monterey Bay, and you will find an enclave of cutting-edge extraction artists. Among them is John Ollila of Santa Cruz Concentrates and Hushpuff. An early adopter of CO2 extraction, Ollila is fighting the wave of investment dollars pouring into many large hydrocarbon labs that are tanking concentrate prices in parallel with what farmers have experienced with flower rates in recent years. Love and Laughter Farms provides properly cured, organic, pesticide-free trim that is ideal for supercritical CO2 extraction. Raw material is sorted for remaining stems and fan leaves before being vacuum-sealed to preserve terpenes. While many manufacturers start with fresh frozen material to achieve a “live resin” or “sauce,” this is only a viable option for solvent-based extractions—mainly butane, though ethanol extracts are on the rise. California has always frowned on hydrocarbon (butane and propane) extractions because of the risk to public safety, and it should be noted that this is still an illegal practice without a local hazardous-materials license and applicable state license. The rest of us are allowed to use CO2, ethanol, water, manual press and sifting techniques. Properly cured trim will be free of excess water, which is detrimental to most of the above-mentioned techniques. Using a liquid CO2 extraction machine fabricated by Paradigm Supercritical Innovations of Springfield, Oregon, Santa Cruz Concentrates prefers to operate extraction chambers at roughly 2,700 psi and 100°F. Ollila’s unit, named Lucy, is powered by a 15-horsepower compressor that keeps the flow rate high. It takes roughly 7.6 liters of supercritical CO2 to extract one gram of THC, so patience for this process is necessary while being limited to processing a maximum of 101 pounds in a 16-hour day. Many turnkey CO2 systems that allow an operator to walk away and return a day later to a completed extraction cycle run upward of 4,500 psi and 130°F; while this will allow for a more complete extraction of cannabinoids, it also pulls many impurities that decrease the initial potency of the extract and make it more difficult to achieve maximum oil potency after refinement. There are, of course, solutions to any problem if you have deep enough pockets. Wiped-film units are becoming increasingly common, and, similar to turnkey CO2 systems, they allow operators with little or no chemistry knowledge to hop in the game and refine crude oil to shockingly potent distillate. The final product—a golden concentrate that’s ready to dab; Ian Stout Clean Oil Here on the Central Coast, Santa Cruz Concentrates does it the old-fashioned way. Supervised by an intelligent chemist, the short-path distillation of a properly dewaxed and bleached CO2 extract yields just as potent oil as a wiped-film unit running crude B/PHO. Pressures and temperatures on the lower end of the supercritical spectrum during extraction also allow Santa Cruz Concentrates to achieve a shatter with no additional post-processing required other than a few hours in a vacuum oven to remove residual water content. And in an exciting move to more accessible cannabis-derived terpenes, innovation continues further as Paradigm has just provided an in-line terpene trap to add to its extraction units. With all the dollars flooding into this industry with the goal of mass-producing marijuana vaporizers, Santa Cruz Concentrates is just fine with being a micro-brew, proud to source from small organic farmers, like those at Love and Laughter Farms, who take pride in their process. Patients and recreational users should be encouraged to be picky about what they inhale; while our lungs may be able to take some hits, they are very sensitive and, especially in a smoker’s life, often the most susceptible to compromise by heavy metals or carcinogenic pesticides. Know your grower and your extract artist. Demand test results. Be very wary of bottom-dollar extracts. And #puffon.
  15. [Grower Бот]

    How To Clean A Grinder In 5 Easy Steps

    Don’t let your lack of knowledge about how to clean a grinder be a deterrent to maintaining your cannabis equipment. There are plenty of good reasons to keep your grinder clean, and it’s really not that difficult when you get the hang of it. In this article, the experts will show you how to clean a grinder in five easy steps — with no muss and no fuss. And if a clean tool isn’t motivation enough for you, we’ll show you how to use the leftover plant matter to take your smoke sesh to the next level. Why You Should Clean Your Grinder 1) Keeps You From Getting Sick Those nugs of bud we all love were once live plant matter. And even though they’ve been dried and cured, they will eventually start to decompose. That means bacteria will start to grow on any leftover kief in your grinder. And in case you were absent that day in middle school, bacteria can make you sick. Clean your grinder and stay healthy longer. 2) Ensures The Smooth Operation Of Your Grinder Periodic cleaning ensures that your grinder will work smoothly when you need it most. Grinding cannabis is a sticky job, and some of that sticky icky will get stuck in your grinder. That can gum up the works and make your grinder not only harder to turn but less efficient to boot. More effort and less finely-ground grass? No thanks. We’ll clean our grinder, thank you. 3) Helps Extend The Life Of Your Grinder Entropy is a harsh mistress, that’s for sure. Systems break down. Objects degrade. And the teeth on your grinder get dull. Damn you, entropy! But you can defy decay by cleaning your grinder regularly. This keeps the teeth sharp and the “turny mechanism” smooth and easy-to-use. And it really is worth the effort to give the finger to a property of thermodynamics (think about this when you’re high and you’ll understand). When You Should Clean Your Grinder Along with how to clean a grinder, many people wonder when to clean a grinder. The answer is every 30 to 60 days. That, of course, depends on how often you’re grinding. If you pulverize pot every day, the cannabinoids and terpenes (a.k.a. trichomes) will build up faster on the surface of your grinder and necessitate more frequent cleanings If you only grind your ganja once or twice a month, you can probably get away with cleaning it every 60 days. How To Clean A Grinder Grinders come in many different shapes, sizes, and materials. The first two variables aren’t really a concern when considering how to clean a grinder…unless it’s so big or so wonkily-shaped that it won’t fit in your freezer. If you find yourself in this situation, all we can say is, “Damn, son, send us a picture of that monster grinder!” The third variable — grinder material — is extremely important when trying to decide how to clean a grinder. Metals will rust when exposed to water. Acrylics and other plastics will dissolve, warp, and generally degrade when exposed to isopropyl alcohol. That’s why it’s imperative to figure out what your grinder is made of before you clean it. If you somehow managed to purchase a grinder with both plastic and metal parts, you’re basically screwed. No, not really. You just have to be extra careful and break the cleaning process down into more steps. We’ll explain how to clean a grinder made of metal and how to clean a grinder made of plastic in the step-by-step guide below. But first, let’s assemble our tools. Tools To Make The Job Easier Isopropyl alcohol (for metal grinders) Dish soap (for acrylic and plastic grinders) Hot water Freezer (optional but highly recommended) Large plate or plastic cutting board Container to hold the kief Toothbrush or soft paintbrush Toothpick, metal pick, or dab tool 5 Easy Steps To Clean A Grinder 1) Disassemble Your Grinder Disassemble your grinder into as many small pieces as possible (without breaking it, of course). If you use a four-piece, three-chamber grinder, you’ll probably have a lid, the grinding chamber, the collection chamber, and the kief chamber. Two- and three-piece grinders will have fewer pieces (Duh!). Some grinders will have a removable screen between the collection chamber and the kief chamber. Be careful when you remove this screen. It’s fragile. Too much force or a sharp nail can break a hole in the screen that will render it about as useful as an ashtray on a motorcycle or a screen door on a battleship. 2) To The Freezer! This step is optional, but it does make the next few steps so much easier. Place all the pieces of your grinder in the freezer for 30 minutes. This will harden all the sticky plant matter that’s clinging to the surface of your grinder. This is especially useful for dislodging every last bit of canna-goodness from the screen between your collection chamber and kief chamber. Handle your plastic grinder with care after you remove it from the freezer. Plastic becomes brittle at low temperatures. 3) Tap, Brush, Scrape After removing the grinder parts from the freezer, hold them over a plastic cutting board and tap them gently against your hand or the surface of the cutting board. If you don’t have a plastic cutting board, a plate works just as well. Honestly, you just need a surface where you can collect the leftover plant matter. A cereal bowl or your partner’s belly works just as well. Next, brush all the surfaces of the grinder with a toothbrush or soft paintbrush. And just so you’re clear, we’re not talking a wall paintbrush. You’ll find it much easier if you use a watercolor paintbrush or something of similar size. If some stubborn gunk refuses to come off, scrape the area with a toothpick or dab tool. DO NOT DISCARD THIS STUFF! Just because it’s been living in your grinder for the past month, doesn’t mean it’s not still some good #&@$. This is the most labor-intensive part of the whole process, but the freezing makes it so much easier. You can skip the 30-minutes of freezer time if you want, but you’ll probably spend two, three, or four times as long trying to pick all the waxy stuff off your grinder. 4) Bring On The Alcohol Or Water It’s at this point that how you clean a grinder will diverge into two different paths depending on whether you have a metal grinder or a plastic grinder. For metal grinders, submerge the pieces in a bowl or plastic baggie of isopropyl alcohol. This will kill any bacteria that might be hiding in the nooks and crannies. Feel free to agitate the bowl or baggie a bit to loosen up any stubborn plant matter. Then let everything soak until the liquid turns a light brown color or until a visual inspection shows that all the last particles have come loose. For plastic grinders, boil some water on the stove and then drop your grinder pieces into the pot. Reduce the heat to a gentle boil (so you don’t melt the freakin’ grinder, you pyro) and then leave the grinder in the hot water for one minute. Remove the grinder pieces from the liquid hot magma (a la Dr. Evil) with cooking tongs, and then set them on a towel to cool. Be sure to wait 10 minutes to give the pieces plenty of time to reach room temperature. 5) Reassemble And Enjoy After the pieces of your grinder are cool, it’s time to reassemble and enjoy the fruits of your labor. Oooh! Feel how easy it turns? Isn’t that worth all the back-breaking work? The answer is yes. How To Use The Goo From Your Grinder Remember how we told you not to discard anything you remove from your grinder (DON”T DO IT!)? Here’s why. That stuff is pure, unadulterated kief. And it’s often of higher quality than the stuff you pull out on a regular basis because it was “fresher” when you ground your cannabis. So unless you’re grinding cheese or nuts between bouts of cannabis (in which case, eeew), don’t let this ganja gold go to waste. Not sure how to use the kief you get after cleaning your grinder? Here are a few suggestions: Decarboxylate it and mix it into your favorite edible Sprinkle a bit on your joint before you close Add a smidge to the bowl of your bong Roll your blunt in this fairy dust Use it to make weed tea The sky’s the limit on how you can use the kief you get after cleaning your grinder. Exercise your imagination and have fun. That’s what cannabis is all about.

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